8/17/17

Facing Eating Disorder Delusions, Part I

Typically delusional thoughts are fixed beliefs about the world that someone is convinced are true but that are clearly false. More often than not, these beliefs are so prominent and so all consuming that they significantly disrupt the person's life and relationships. 

Sometimes the delusions can be circumscribed, for instance focused solely on one person or one event happening in the world. In these circumstances, the delusions only come to light when the specific target is discussed. 

Delusions in an eating disorder are both circumscribed and also internal. The fake beliefs about food and weight only pertain to that person and not others. In addition, the thoughts are shrouded in secrecy and rarely come to light. Unlike almost all other delusions, they only are revealed when questions probe enough to elicit the beliefs. 

Yet these delusions are so powerful that they affect most decisions every single day and profoundly limit how someone lives their life. 

Eating disorder delusions come in two similar patterns. First they can revolve around severe limitations of foods that one can eat or the amount one is allowed to eat. Breaking these laws around food actually feels like doing something absolutely horrific, something illegal that deserves punishment.

The delusions can also revolve around a belief that the person either has never been sick with an eating disorder or has never been very sick despite clear evidence that proves otherwise. Some people with clear organ damage or even at risk of dying still believe they are well. 

It's important to recognize that these are thoughts someone with an eating disorder absolutely believes are true. They are not just passing thoughts. This is often what makes understanding these illnesses so hard. 

Questioning delusions is very difficult. Directly confronting them typically fails immediately and brings any trust in a relationship into question. The way to challenge these fixed thoughts is to essentially build a case against them.

By amassing evidence that shows how these delusions are false, one can begin to bring to light the lack of data to prove these thoughts are true. Even with overwhelming evidence, it can continue to be hard to escape a delusion. It often takes months of questioning the thoughts to weaken them in time.


Gradually, the most important step is to help the person herself begin to question the delusions directly. I'll discuss that more in the next post.

8/11/17

Delusional Eating Disorder Thoughts

The large majority of people with eating disorders seem fairly well and functional on the surface. Although the physical and psychological effects of the illness are rampant, most people can engage in conversation, hold down a job or go to school and maintain stable enough connections in the world. 

The juxtaposition of someone who appears well but actually suffers from a serious disease is confusing for many people. It contributes to the difficulty many have with believing an eating disorder is a life threatening illness. 

To those unaware of the nature of eating disorders, recovery could easily just mean starting to eat normally, as if the symptoms are a choice. That's the primary misunderstanding which explains why it's so hard for laypeople to comprehend the nature of these illnesses. If getting well were a choice, eating disorders wouldn't exist in the first place. 

What lies underneath the seemingly normal facade is a thought process that drives the eating disorder. These thoughts make it a powerful and destructive illness. Distinguishing between clearly delusional eating disorder thoughts and healthy thoughts is extremely confusing for people in recovery. The process of recovery is largely about learning to identify and ignore the eating disorder thoughts. However, disregarding thoughts that have structured daily life for years takes time. 

For the purpose of this blog, I will call these thoughts delusional. Clinically, a delusion is a fixed false belief. In the case of eating disorders, a common delusion is, for example, "I can't be thin enough" or "this crash diet will finally stop the binging" or "I'm really fine even though I feel weak and dizzy" or "I'll just use laxatives one more time." 


The next few posts will explain in more detail what the delusional component of an eating disorder entails and the process of learning how to ignore them and move ahead in recovery.

8/4/17

The Role of Medications to Treat Binge Eating Disorder

Unlike people with other eating disorders, those with Binge Eating Disorder often contact me solely to talk about medications. Sometimes they want to meet to discuss medication options or even, if they live outside of New York, ask to speak on the phone for a few minutes. 

There is a widely accepted view that medications are unlikely to be a significant part of treatment for other eating disorders, but the idea that medications can temper, if not cure, binge eating is pervasive. 

From a clinician's point of view, treating binge eating is similar to treating other eating disorders. The focus on a combination of normalizing eating patterns while zeroing in on the emotional and psychological manifestations of the illness is paramount. There is no evidence that medications help binge eating any more than other eating disorders. 

Seemingly, the media and lay knowledge of eating disorders categorize binge eating as something different. It represents, in our current culture, a flaw or a sign of weakness. As medication has become more central to psychiatric treatment, it is natural to assume there must be medication to fix this core craving or, as some falsely describe it, lack of willpower. 

The reality is that binge eating is one of a variety of biological and psychological adaptations to chronic undereating. We are all programmed to respond to prolonged starvation, i.e. dieting, in different ways. For some people, the starvation mechanism cascades into compulsive starvation and leads to anorexia. For some, the diet ends abruptly and leads to normal eating. For others, it triggers binge eating which can lead to bulimia, binge eating disorder or a variety of compensatory mechanisms to deal with overeating. 


Ultimately, the course of treatment needs to be the same. And a key component of treating binge eating disorder is to take the shame away from binge eating and follow a comprehensive treatment plan rather than a pharmacological magic fix. It's not a flaw but part of an illness.